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规避技术保护措施的判定及其法律责任:加拿大联邦法院首次审理技术保护措施案件
2017年6月13日

注:原文由梁志文编译,载《知产观察》2017年6月11日

201731日,加拿大联邦法院首次对技术保护措施做出实体裁判,认为上诉人主张的技术保护措施受法律保护。

 

事实

 

上诉人是加拿大知名的视频游戏制造商,拥有585个游戏软件。第一被上诉人为第二被上诉人的唯一董事和CEO。第二被上诉人销售的设备和提供的服务系为规避上诉人三个游戏操控台而设计的。有两个游戏的技术保护措施由三层保护措施构成:游戏卡的物理形状(用于排除其他系统在该游戏内运行)、启动时的安全校验(用于阻止非法访问)和加密措施(在操控台与游戏卡之间的加密通讯)。另一个游戏的措施主要有两层组成:私有数据格式(只能在该游戏光盘上使用)和防复制代码(防止使用商业性的工具进行游戏复制)。

此外,上诉人还认为在被上诉人侵犯了他在前两个游戏卡中使用的启动代码和开始菜单。

案件的核心问题是:第二被告销售的“游戏复制者”设备(用户使用该设备可以未经授权而运行上诉人的游戏)、mod芯片(可以规避第二个游戏操控台的技术保护措施)以及安装该芯片有关的服务提供,是否侵犯了上诉人的版权,以及违反了版权法的反规避条款。 

 

法律适用

 

法院首先简要的裁决了是否侵犯版权的争议。因为第二被上诉人知道或应知“游戏复制者”设备装载有上诉人的版权作品,却告知消费者如何非法下载本案的作品,对这些作品构成了“授权侵权”(authorized infringement)。

而关于是否违反了规避条款,法院则进行了详细的分析。

法院认为加拿大版权法对技术保护措施的界定非常宽泛。不同于英国版权、设计与专利法第48条的规定,加拿大法并未要求作品上采取的技术保护措施必须为“有效的”技术。“从英国法的结构和表述来看,‘有效的技术措施’的界定范围要窄,‘接触控制或保护方法’仅限于加密、干扰或其他干扰作品的行为。尽管存有争议,这就意味着接触控制必须构成对复制的一些障碍。但加拿大法并没有这些限制。定义a段中,技术保护措施是指‘在正常运行中的任何有效技术、装备或部件,(a)控制接触作品……’法律并未有规定这些有效措施须对受保护作品进行变换(transformation)。据此,对控制接触的技术保护措施予以‘规避’的界定就不限于干扰和加密或其他类似措施,没有这些技术保护措施,其他人就可以避开、规避、移除或破坏技术保护措施。很明显,议会对控制接触的技术保护措施给予保护的意图不是将其限定于复制障碍的范围。”

据此,法院认为游戏卡的物理外形也属于版权法上的技术保护措施,因为它与操控台相配套,就类似于“锁与钥匙”的关系。上诉人采取的其他技术保护措施,如启动时的安全校验、加密措施、私有数据格式和防复制代码,都属于版权法的定义与立法目的范围之内。

最后,就违反规避条款的法律责任方面,损害赔偿的计算也成为双方争议的焦点之一。被上诉人认为其规避行为不构成侵犯版权,法定赔偿不能予以适用,或者也不能根据被规避的技术保护措施数量来计算赔偿数额。而上诉人则主张要依据其系统内585个电子游戏来计算赔偿数额。

法院认为,加拿大版权法并未规定规避技术保护措施承担责任需要实际侵权行为的存在。第41.14)条规定,违反第(1)(b)或(c)段的行为,在技术保护措施已经或将被规避的情况下,版权人有权获得所有的救济手段。这就意味着无需证明实际规避后果。从逻辑上讲,也无需证明对版权作品的实际接触或复制后果。法院还认为,法律明确规定作品的版权人有权获得所有的救济手段,既然单一作品的版权可以主张,那多个作品的版权人也自然应该对每一件作品享有所有的救济手段。法院认为该解释也符合版权法第38.1(1)条的规定,该条规定的救济措施针对“每一个作品或其他客体”的侵权行为。法院还认为以规避的技术保护措施数目来计算损害赔偿是对现实视而不见,“劫匪砸开门锁,是因为门锁后面的物品价值,而非门锁的价值。如果上诉人未投资上百万元去创作出有价值的视频游戏图书馆,被上诉人就没有规避设备的市场。”此外,法定赔偿的计算必须要考虑作品的投资以及对盗版行为的遏制。“事实上,如果以技术保护措施为基础来计算数额,就会变成规避设备这一生意中的固定成本。这就会鼓励规避最畅销和最有价值的版权图书馆。这不是议会的目的所在。”

据此,法院授予1170万加元的法定赔偿。

 

 

 

 

  附:加拿大版权法相关条款

41 The following definitions apply in this section and in sections 41.1 to 41.21.

circumvent means,

(a) in respect of a technological protectionmeasure within the meaning of paragraph (a) of the definition technologicalprotection measure, to descramble a scrambled work or decrypt an encrypted workor to otherwise avoid, bypass, remove, deactivate or impair the technologicalprotection measure, unless it is done with the authority of the copyrightowner; and (b) in respect of a technological protection measure within themeaning of paragraph (b) of the definition technological protection measure, toavoid, bypass, remove, deactivate or impair the technological protectionmeasure. (contourner)

technological protection measure means anyeffective technology, device or component that, in the ordinary course of itsoperation, (a) controls access to a work, to a performer’s performancefixed in a sound recording or to a sound recording and whose use is authorizedby the copyright owner; or (b) restricts the doing — with respect to awork, to a performer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or to a sound recording— of any act referred to in section 3, 15 or 18 and any act for whichremuneration is payable under section 19. (mesure technique de protection)

Prohibition

41.1 (1) No person shall

(a) circumvent a technological protectionmeasure within the meaning of paragraph (a) of the definition technologicalprotection measure in section 41;

(b) offer services to the public or provideservices if (i) the services are offered or provided primarily for thepurposes of circumventing a technological protection measure, (ii) theuses or purposes of those services are not commercially significant other thanwhen they are offered or provided for the purposes of circumventing atechnological protection measure, or (iii) the person markets thoseservices as being for the purposes of circumventing a technological protectionmeasure or acts in concert with another person in order to market thoseservices as being for those purposes; or

(c) manufacture, import, distribute, offer forsale or rental or provide — including by selling or renting — any technology,device or component if (i) the technology, device or component is designedor produced primarily for the purposes of circumventing a technologicalprotection measure, (ii) the uses or purposes of the technology, device orcomponent are not commercially significant other than when it is used for thepurposes of circumventing a technological protection measure, or (iii) theperson markets the technology, device or component as being for the purposes ofcircumventing a technological protection measure or acts in concert withanother person in order to market the technology, device or component as beingfor those purposes.

Circumvention of technological protection measure

(2) The owner of the copyright in a work, aperformer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording inrespect of which paragraph (1)(a) has been contravened is, subject to this Actand any regulations made under section 41.21, entitled to all remedies — by wayof injunction, damages, accounts, delivery up and otherwise — that are or maybe conferred by law for the infringement of copyright against the person whocontravened that paragraph.

 (3) Theowner of the copyright in a work, a performer’s performance fixed in a soundrecording or a sound recording in respect of which paragraph (1)(a) has beencontravened may not elect under section 38.1 to recover statutory damages froman individual who contravened that paragraph only for his or her own privatepurposes.

Services, technology, device or component

(4) Every owner of the copyright in a work, aperformer’s performance fixed in a sound recording or a sound recording inrespect of which a technological protection measure has been or could becircumvented as a result of the contravention of paragraph (1)(b) or (c) is,subject to this Act and any regulations made under section 41.21, entitled toall remedies — by way of injunction, damages, accounts, delivery up andotherwise — that are or may be conferred by law for the infringement ofcopyright against the person who contravened paragraph (1)(b) or (c).

38 (1) Subject to subsection (2), theowner of the copyright in a work or other subject-matter may (a) recoverpossession of all infringing copies of that work or other subject-matter, andof all plates used or intended to be used for the production of infringingcopies, and (b) take proceedings for seizure of those copies or platesbefore judgment if, under the law of Canada or of the province in which thoseproceedings are taken, a person is entitled to take such proceedings, as ifthose copies or plates were the property of the copyright owner

文章来源:知产观察

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